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1: Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen 1972 Jul 10;92(19):1342-3 [Strong acting analgesics. Age and environment--factors which are determining the efficiency]. [Article in Norwegian] Lunde PK, Naess K. PMID: 5053653 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 1: MMW Munch Med Wochenschr 1977 Apr 8;119(14):465-7 [The exogenous toxicologic aspects of headache: (author's transl)]. [Article in German] Neu I. Headache is the cardinal symptom in many chronic intoxication syndromes. Here we find a distinct increase in connection with noxas stemming from our civilization: In regions of industrial agglomeration there is an increase in CO concentration and in lead poisoning from exhaust gases. Engine detergents cause typical intoxication syndromes. Insecticides have caused mercurialism and DDT-poisoning as a result of chemical concentration in maritime animals. Similarly, chronic poisoning by the insecticide E 605 can have headache as a cardinal symptom. In addition, the increased use of pharmaceutical agents leads to more possibilities of chronic intoxication, PMID: 404544 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 1: Int J Occup Med Environ Health 1996;9(4):331-40 Chemical toxicity and reactive oxygen species. Parke DV, Sapota A. School of Biological Sciences, University of Surrey, Guilford, UK. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are cytotoxic, causing inflammatory disease, including tissue necrosis, organ failure, atherosclerosis, infertility, birth defects, premature aging, mutations and malignancy. ROS are produced in the metabolism of drugs and industrial chemicals by (i) one-electron peroxidase oxidations to form cation radicals, (ii) cytochrome P450 metabolism to free radical products, (iii) stabilisation of the ROS-generator, CYP2E1, and (iv) futile cycling of other cytochromes P450. ROS production initiates inflammation which unless quenched may result in chronic inflammatory disease states, e.g. hepatitis, nephritis, myositis, scleroderma, lupus erythematosus, multiple system organ failure. Quenching of ROS is affected by the redox buffer, glutathione (GSH), and the antioxidants, ascorbic acid, tocopherols, retinoids, in conjunction with the redox enzymes, GSH reductase, GSH peroxidase, catalase and superoxide dismutase. Many industrial workers with symptoms of systemic inflammation, resulting from exposure to toxic chemicals, are diagnosed as having rheumatoid arthritis, virus infections, or other microbial lesions, largely because many physicians are unaware that exposure to certain chemicals can initiate inflammatory disease states. Publication Types: Review Review, tutorial PMID: 9117192 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]